The worship of Amun (-Re and security later) and religion associated Theologiat of the
most complex of ancient Egypt. The pictures in the highest security hidden god Ra as his name means, but it was not a theological god alone, hidden, even though his name is also a hidden form can not be realized. In other words, the ambiguity surrounding Amun is caused by the absolute perfection, and in this it is different from all other Egyptian gods. His Holiness was important so that it remained separate from the universe creature. Was associated with air and this was the hidden force, which facilitated his promotion as God higher. Mark Amon creating for himself, (except that the school Hermopolis (Ashmunein \ Hmon \ Khmno) theological older was considered one of the gods in Alojdod, Althamon known name), as was his ability to regenerate and re-create itself, which accounted for his ability to transform into a snake and put his skin, and with the This has been different from the creation, separate and independent of him. Ptouhdh with Ra, the sun, reflected the creation of Amon, and this collection of security Ra in the same divine extremes: it is as Amun was a mysterious and hidden and separate from the world, and as Ra was a clear and visible and giving of daily life. The same logic was its association with Pmaat, the Egyptian concept of justice and balance in the universe. Facilitated by the nature of the gods Amun, the hidden associate with the other. Associated with Amun in Thebes at the outset Bmonto, the old god, and then came to associate excelled, and was followed by another associate gods, he knew the names of Ra security and the security of Atom Ra Montu-Ra and security Hrakhca, Maine security. Here, it must be noted that Amon was not integrated into other gods to create a new god, but he was united for the ability to associate with the divine. At the height of the worship of Amun - Ra, close to many of the Egyptian religion as a monotheistic religion, where he became gods other peak of his ability, or manifestations of him. In short he became the only god and the top. His wife was sometimes called Lamont, feminine version of Amun, but often it was known by name and death, and had a top human being wearing the double crown of Ugean tribal and sea, and their son Khonsu is, the moon. Together formed the triad of Thebes. Some went to the Amon was a god of relatively recent in ancient Egyptian religion, as the worship in Thebes - where the oldest temples - have not been documented only from the Eleventh Dynasty, but is in fact found mentioned in the embedded-Ahram, which was attributed to the reign of people, the latter in Fifth Dynasty, which is shown as a symbol of creative power, consistent with its role in the gods of Hermopolis Thamon, giving greater forward presence. Likely that the worship of Amun began in Hermopolis, or that he at first was a god of Thebes locally when she was still the town is of great importance.
When the family emerged from the territory of the eleventh Herrmontis (Armant), or perhaps of the same good, lavished on the Temple of Karnak, statues and gifts. When you enable Dynasty XVII of the expulsion of the Hyksos Piankhy, it has become to Amun, the god of the capital property, like as a great protector of Egypt. When carrying the kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty weapons outside the Egyptian border, known up to that time in the military campaigns successful on Syria, Nubia and Libya, the Amon god, a national of Egypt, known universally, Tamsa light of all other gods and installed its place above the gods of foreign countries, Fshaat worship in Nubia and Libya, which was a common Egyptian culture there. Rates of all the kings of Egypt and their achievements and their victories Omjadehm to Amun and showered gifts and wealth and the spoils on the temples. Solution at this time the warrior god Amon place as God Montu chairman of the city of Thebes, and became king of the gods. Became the god Amun in Nubia Dynasty twenty-fifth, as was the priests of Amon in the Kingdom of Blana (Nabbatea) and Marwa in control of all affairs of state, King Vijtaron and direct his military campaigns, and sometimes even Argmonh to commit suicide as mentioned Diodorjs Sicilian. This lasted until the third century BC, when the Erkaman (Arkamane Ergamenes) slaughter of the priests. Keep pace with the rise to the rank of the god Amun, national and global levels with the increasing importance of Thebes. This rise accelerated with the assumption of security erased first (August Sanپ Ra) ruling in Thebes and founded the Twelfth Dynasty, and reached its peak in the era of the modern state when he was celebrated in the festival Oپt. Accompanied by the name hinted security founder of the family name of the god Amun and carried after him three of his successors, the kings also took Taibion Many of the Middle Kingdom the same name later. In ritual festival Oپt, was carrying a statue of Amun of Karnak on the boat to Thebes (Luxor) celebrated his marriage to the death as Kamut F Khonsu they'll have to complete the triad of Thebes, which was in this role is the ability of creation. Amon enjoyed great popularity among the people where he was called out Bnasir the poor, and it protects the weak from the strong and the protector of justice, and had to ask for help from Amon to prove purity or to purify himself of his sins first. Amon was the link of ownership means that the Egyptian king derives his power from him as a son like what happened when I found Queen Hatshepsut (Maat Kara) which have a helper, and Vazmth itself to be announced as his daughter, and a girl her temple in Deir el-Bahari in his name. According to the official theology of the modern state in the security of Ra is the one who ruled Egypt from the King, and shows his will through his priests. But with the increasing importance of the increased power of the god and his priests gain control grip on the political scene, and arrived to the case that ruled Egypt from the strain of the Kings are the priests of the family-first century. Amon Images of Amun in the form of human figures, wearing a crown out of it are two forms are parallel, rectangular and circular party, may represent Resthan superpowers of the tail of the falcon god Almstaartan Maine. There are two common types of shot: In one of them depicted sitting on a throne, and the other depicts the development of the penis erect (ithyphallic) holding a whip in his hand, just as images of God Min. It is likely that this latter is filming its original form which was known as the god of fertility, which leads in front of the King's ceremonial rituals to cultivate the land or harvest yield. During the Eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian goose was considered (chenalopex) Ktgesd sacred to Amon, but he was represented as a ram, and more abundant wool of centuries brackets who came to be known centuries of Amun in his name and found a representative in this way since the days of Amenhotep III. (In turn linked to the type of domestic rams-haired old sender and the centuries straight brominated god Khnum). And also appeared in human form with a frog, a representative for his role in Alojdod. Sometimes the name of the sun god Amun-Ra match the name of the security of Ra, especially when he was referred to as the "king of the gods" from the eighteenth dynasty, where the rule of the heavens in the cosmology of the Egyptian god Ra. When the transfer Omnman the first capital to Atjtawi (at the edge of the Delta; yet to be discovered and can be Liszt) has increased the importance of this pairing excelled politically and theologically, which was made perfect sense for a god superior Kamon, who was nicknamed also "King of the mitral Two Lands." Ages in Greek was Amon - Ra sometimes depicts a bearded man's head and the body of a scarab and falcon wings and feet and claws of a lion, with a view to bring many different qualities of it
Beginning of the reign of Thutmose IV of the Eighteenth Dynasty in the time I reached the cult of Amun to its height, began to reverence an abstract image of the sun is in the Aten, to appear. Until Ahmose, founder of the family found a pattern Imitdha Aten when he shines. Arrived to the worship of Aten apogee when the campus of King Amenhotep IV, who became King Akhenaten common worship of Amun. Failure of Akhenaten to impose the worship of the god Aten on the people and failed to eliminate the influence of the priests of Amun, powerful, returned Religion Ancient to what it was after his death and destroyed the effects and the temples of Aten and abandoned his capital, sister Manhattan (Amarna) to good again at the hands of his successor Tut - Ankh - security. In the period following the return of the worship of Amun, wrote hymns and prayers to the security - Ra almost monotheistic in its formulation and its meaning. After the demise of the Twentieth Dynasty shift the center of gravity for good and the authority of Amun began to shows signs of abating. Kings tried to priests in the family, the twenty-first save prestige of Amon as they can, and with the family to the capital of the twenty-second was in the north, but the priests of Amon continued to play an important role in the antique capital of Thebes. Consistently weak governance has increased the division between Upper and sea, and from that time was the veneration of the Nubian kings of Amun worship which prevailed in their own land, which is a long time to save a good position, the capital of their king Fjaloha despite the fact that their wealth and influence of cultural influence were not enough. Amon was the god of good even in the time of degradation, in addition to that he was God, the most important for a number of areas of the Delta and the temples of many small town of prestige in Middle Egypt to Canoپs on the Mediterranean Sea (near Abu Qir); as it was represented to some extent national aspirations of local of Upper Egypt in the face of Middle Egypt and the Delta
Among the interesting household items found in the tomb of Tutankhamun is this genuine and unique wooden fire lighter, which the ancient Egyptians used for creating fire. The fire lighter functions through the fast rotating, by hand or by using a bow with thongs, of the fire stick into drill holes.
The fire stick has 12 holes that contain resin to create the spark by friction which then ignites the nearby tinder.
The drill stick is topped by a separate head which helped the user to hold it steady.
Statues were among the most important features of Egyptian arts. A statue had an essential function in the tomb throughout Pharaonic times, which was to enable the spirit to identify the features of the deceased person so that it could find him in the hereafter. Throughout the Old, Intermediate, and New Kingdoms, the art of sculpture flourished and produced a number of statues of different types. Egyptians used the size of their sculptures to show the social order. The pharaoh was larger than life-size, sometimes weighing hundreds of tons. Scribes and court officials were life-size, and servants and peasants, although made with high precision, were small, usually less than 50 centimeters. These statues exhibited the servant in various attitudes of working. Also, the shawabti statues, a few centimeters high, were like servants that are called by the master in the hereafter to perform the tasks he needs. There were 365 such shawabti statues, representing the days of the year.
A basic feature of Egyptian sculpture was the Pharaonic Needles, made through utilizing high architectural technology, as the needle was cut from a single stone block. Needles were among the most prominent elements of ancient architecture, usually located on both sides of entrances to temples. Columns had a special status in Egyptian temples in the Pharaonic and Greek eras. A column consists of three parts: the base, body, and crown. Columns were either square or rounded. Crowns took different shapes similar to flowers and plants, such as the palm tree and the lotus plant. A common shape was that of a woven basket with an ornamental plant shape or grape vines inside.
In the Greco-Roman era, Romans discovered many types of marble in the Red Sea mountains, which they used extensively in sculpture and construction. Movement and dress folds became evident in sculptural style. Several statues, particularly of kings and gods, have been found apart from their heads. A special type of sculpture emerged during that era, known as terracotta, which are small statues made of pottery with heights ranging between 5 and 20 centimeters. Large numbers of statues were found representing animals, such as a vulture, cat, hippopotamus, monkey, bull, lion, and dog, as well as human figures.
The Coptic culture only focused on two particular types of sculpture. The first type is the tombstone, which is a plate of limestone whose upper part is often shaped like a triangle with drawings. The tombstone bears the portrait of the deceased and date of death. The second type of sculpture is the cornice, which is a carved decorative element above or below walls and used for decoration of churches and abbeys. They usually had plant or animal ornamentations and in special cases, human figures. Since the sixth century AD, the cross appeared in the middle.
Sculpture played a small role in Islamic culture, since Islam rejected all aspects of the previous pagan religions. Therefore, only a few statues from that time period were found; these were not carved, but made out of templates. Most of these small statues were of small animals, such as a rabbit or gazelle.
Egyptian priests compiled funerary and ritual texts to assist the deceased during the
journey in the underworld.
The priests intended to provide the deceased with information about the journey of the sun and about the creatures and demons living in the underworld.
These texts further instructed the deceased on how to overcome all the difficulties and obstacles that would endanger the journey through the underworld. By overcoming these obstacles the deceased could achieve resurrection.
In the Old Kingdom, the so-called pyramid texts were written on the walls of the burial chambers in the pyramids. These texts were later developed into the "Coffin Texts" during the Middle Kingdom and were enhanced with illustrations of the underworld and the offering items. The coffin of Sepi provides an example of these texts.
In the New Kingdom, the Book of the Dead, another major development, portrayed the same ideas regarding the hereafter
A few queens became sole rulers in Egypt in ancient times
This normally occurred after the death of their husbands, while their sons or stepsons were still underage.
In these instances, the queens took over as "King of Upper and Lower Egypt," which, according to tradition, was not tolerated by the ancient Egyptians.
Their names and deeds were mostly erased from both memories and monuments. Their reigns usually marked a change in the dynasty or ruling family.
These famous female rulers were Neith-iqeret or Nitocris, Sobek-nefru, Hatshepsut, and Ta-wesert. Neith-iqeret, or Nitocris, might have been a widow of the last king of the Sixth Dynasty. She ruled for a very short time.
Sobek-nefru ruled after the death of her husband, Amenemhat the Fourth, at the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Hatshepsut was the greatest female ruler in the history of Egypt. She became ruler after the early death of her husband, Tuthmosis the Second, in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Hatshepsut ruled for about 20 years, first together with her very young stepson, Tuthmosis the Third, as co-regent, then alone.
Ta-wesert was the widow of Seti the Second, the last king of the Nineteenth Dynasty
Ptolemaic Queens' Influence on Their Husbands
During the Ptolemaic period, women of the ruling class were equal to their husbands in all ways and played a large role in public affairs. They would sponsor expeditions and supply all the expeditions' needs with funding from their husbands.
Women built temples, founded cities, led armies, and owned castles and forts. They sometimes took the position of king or ruled as absolute equals to the king. These queens developed the same interest their husbands had in education. A woman like Arsinoe the Second, Ptolemy the Second's wife, was beautiful and very powerful. She naturally had an impact on all those who surrounded her, especially her brother, who was also her husband, to the extent that he was called Philadelphus, or "lover of his sister."
Arsinoe was mainly responsible for her husband's foreign policy. People and messengers from other cities would seek her counsel. It was probably based on his wife's advice that Ptolemy the Second sent an expedition to Rome requesting friendship. Arsinoe's death ended the Ptolemaic expansion since she had control over the middle Greek countries and because Ptolemy could not resist her influence. When she died, he named the Al-Faiyum province after her, which became known as Arsinoe Province after it was reformed.
Notable Mothers of Sultans
Although very little information is available to us about the upbringing of a sultan's children, we learn from stories such as One Thousand and One Nights that it is obvious that mothers were extremely loving and protective of their children. Mothers were constantly trying to spare them from their fathers' punishments by hiding their mistakes. Mothers might even murder anyone who threatened the lives of their sons.
During the Ayyubid period, the mother of Nur al-Din helped her son escape the wrath of his father Al-Malik al-Adil, who swore to cut off his hands as a punishment for drinking alcohol.
Historians mention that Al-Khatun, the daughter of Baraka Khan, poisoned Prince Belik when she overheard his plan to prevent her son from becoming Sultan of Egypt.
The mother of Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un is said to have escaped from the Egyptian territories with her son for fear of plots to get rid of him in order that another could take the throne.
Another example is that of Khawand Zeinab, daughter of Khasbak. She chose to leave the Citadel Palace and join her two sons, Al-Muayyed Ahmed and Muhamad, in prison. She nursed Ahmed until his death and then requested the permission of Sultan Khashqadam to take his body to Cairo to bury him next to his father Al-Ashraf Inal.
As for Khawand Aslabay, mother of Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qaitbay, upon learning of a threat on her son's life from his uncle Konsowah, she made them vow loyalty to each other.
Another historical story is that of Anook, son of Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un. When Anook fell in love with a singer named Zahra, his mother, Khawand Toghay, helped him. When his father the Sultan found out, he vowed to kill Anook, but Al-Nasir Mohammad's wife, Khawand Toghay stopped him.
The great respect and privileges that mothers enjoyed at the time is repeated in several historical Mamluk sources.
An example of this great love is the amazing building Al-Ashraf Shaaban built in honor of his mother, Umm al-Sultan Shaaban.
Famous Muslim Women
Many historical writings indicate that Muslim women were involved in both religious and intellectual life.
Numerous women specialized in grammar, poetry, and the Prophet's sayings.
One example is Fatma, daughter of Abbas Shikha of Rebat (convent) Al-Baghdadia, named "The Lady of her times" by the historian Al-Makrizi, who described her as having great intellect and wisdom.
Other women were known by reciting the Prophet's sayings from the Bukhari book in gatherings that took place at the Citadel.
Many intellectuals of the Mamluk period were taught and certified by famous women, Muslim scholars at the time. A historian named Al-Sakhawy describes how many students crowded to listen to Anas, daughter of Abd Al-Karim. In his book, "The Golden Light in the Elite of the Ninth Century," he includes over a thousand biographies about women that lived during that century (Ninth Century Hijri, Fifteenth Century AD).
Before that, during the Wallah age, Sayeda Nafisa, a descendant of the Prophet, gave religious lessons in her house and was a great woman loved by the Egyptian population.
One of the most famous women of Egyptian Islamic history is Lady Meskah, a slave to Sultan Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un. She raised him and played a major role in the social life of the time. Lady Meskah established a mosque and taught Islamic knowledge and wisdom in the area of Sayeda Zeinab.
Lady Khawand Toghay was a slave to Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un. He freed her and made her his wife. She was a great beauty and a kind-hearted woman who attended to all her slaves' needs. She was the mother of Prince Anook and her greatness continued even after the death of Al-Nasir Mohammad Ibn Qala'un. Khawand Toghay built a khanqa, a monastery or Sufi convent. This khanqa, had houses linked to it where Sufis lived and received their education. She arranged the presence of a prayer reader at her son's grave. She also donated money so that bread could be given to the poor.
Another famous woman of the Mamluk period is Khawand Baraka, mother of Sultan Shaaban and wife of Prince Iljay Al-Yusufi. She enjoyed greatness and high status. The school of Umm al-Sultan Shaaban, which was built for her, is a great building with a public fountain which is located near the Citadel. She also arranged for lessons of the Shafii and Hanafi religious rites to be taught there. She was buried there along with her son Al-Ashraf Shaaban.